Locky ransomware, a menacing strain of malware, epitomises the ever-growing threat landscape in the digital realm. Recognised for its sophisticated encryption tactics, Locky infiltrates systems, encrypting critical files and demanding a ransom for their release. Confronting this perilous malware necessitates a deep understanding of its functionality, propagation methods, and effective countermeasures. In this article, we delve into the intricate details of Locky ransomware, elucidating strategies to detect, remove, and safeguard against its pervasive impact. Equipping oneself with insights into combating Locky is pivotal in fortifying digital defences and mitigating potential cyber threats.

Overview of Locky Ransomware

Locky ransomware was a serious threat to businesses and individuals alike. The malware could cause significant financial losses and disruption to operations. In some cases, it could even lead to the loss of irreplaceable data. Here’s an overview of Locky ransomware, its characteristics, and how to protect yourself from it.

History of Locky and its Emergence and Evolution

Locky emerged in 2016 as one of the most destructive ransomware families. Initially distributed via phishing emails containing malicious attachments, it rapidly spread across various systems, infecting both individual users and organisations. Its evolution includes changes in distribution tactics and encryption methods.

Characteristics and Operational Mechanisms

Locky exhibits common traits of ransomware, encrypting files on infected systems and demanding payment in cryptocurrency for decryption keys. It often uses strong encryption algorithms, making data recovery without the decryption key nearly impossible.

How Locky Operates

Locky primarily enters systems through phishing emails with infected attachments or links. Once executed, it encrypts files, renaming them with unique extensions, and displays a ransom note demanding payment for decryption.

Different Variants and Encryption Methods Used by Locky

Locky ransomware was one of the most prevalent ransomware families in the late 2010s, causing widespread disruption and financial losses. This malware utilised various techniques to infect systems, encrypt files, and demand ransom payments. Here’s an overview of the different variants and encryption methods employed by Locky:

Variants and Modifications

Locky has undergone various modifications, resulting in different variants with altered features, distribution methods, and evasion techniques. Each variant aims to improve infection rates and evade security measures.

Encryption Techniques Employed by Locky Strains

Locky uses sophisticated encryption techniques like RSA and AES to encrypt files, making decryption without the encryption key extremely challenging. Variants may use different key lengths or encryption algorithms to make it harder to reverse the encryption process.

These aspects provide insight into the history, operational methods, and encryption techniques used by Locky ransomware and its variants.

Initial Response to Locky Ransomware

Locky ransomware is a type of malware that encrypts a victim’s files, rendering them inaccessible until a ransom is paid. Once infected, the ransomware will typically display a pop-up window or a ransom note within the affected files. Here are some common signs that your system may be infected with Locky ransomware:

Identifying Signs of Locky Ransomware Infection

  1. File Extension Changes: Locky often appends specific file extensions to encrypted files, altering their original names. These extensions could be random characters or specific patterns unique to Locky variants.
  2. Ransom Notes and Messages: Locky leaves ransom notes containing instructions on how victims can pay to regain access to their encrypted files. These notes are often saved in affected directories or displayed prominently on the screen.

Initial Response: Isolating Infected Systems

  1. Network Segmentation: Immediately isolate infected systems from the network to prevent the ransomware from spreading to other devices or servers. Disconnect affected devices from the internet and network connections.
  2. Shutting Down Systems Shut down the infected systems to halt Locky’s encryption process and limit damage to files and connected devices.

Responding promptly by identifying signs of Locky infection and isolating affected systems helps prevent further spread and minimise the impact of the ransomware attack.

Steps to Remove Locky Ransomware

1. Disconnect from Networks

Disconnect all infected devices from the internet and local networks. This step prevents Locky from spreading to other devices or systems.

2. Identify and Terminate Malicious Processes

  • Task Manager: Access the Task Manager (Ctrl+Shift+Esc) or similar tools to identify suspicious processes associated with Locky.
  • Process Termination: End any suspicious processes consuming unusually high CPU or memory.

3. Antivirus and Anti-Malware Scans

  • Run Security Software: Employ reputable antivirus and anti-malware programs to conduct comprehensive scans of the affected systems.
  • Thorough Scanning: Allow the software to scan thoroughly, targeting and eliminating Locky and associated threats.

4. System Restore or Backup Recovery

  • Utilise Backups: Use previously created system restore points or backups made before the Locky infection occurred.
  • Restore Clean State: Restore systems to a clean state from the backup to eliminate the ransomware.

5. Manual Removal and Registry Cleanup

  • File Cleanup: Manually search for and delete any remaining Locky-related files that security software might have missed.
  • Registry Cleanup: If necessary, perform registry cleanup to ensure no traces of Locky remain in the system’s registry.

6. Verify System Integrity

  • Security Verification: After attempting removal, perform a final security scan using antivirus or security software.
  • Ensure Removal: Confirm the complete removal of Locky and validate the system’s security status.

These steps, when executed meticulously, can help in effectively removing Locky Ransomware from an infected system.

Preventive Measures and Best Practices

Here are some preventive measures and best practices to protect against Locky Ransomware:

1. Regular Data Backups

  • Frequent Backups: Maintain regular backups of important files and data on separate storage devices or cloud-based services.
  • Automated Backup Systems: Employ automated backup solutions to ensure continuous protection against data loss.

2. Keep Software Updated

  • Operating System and Software Patches: Regularly install updates, patches, and security fixes for the operating system, applications, and security software to address vulnerabilities exploited by ransomware like Locky.

3. Use Reliable Security Software

  • Antivirus and Anti-Malware Programs: Install reputable and updated antivirus/anti-malware software. Ensure real-time protection and conduct regular system scans to detect and eliminate potential threats.

4. Exercise Caution with Email Attachments

  • Be Vigilant: Avoid opening suspicious email attachments or clicking on links from unknown or untrusted sources.
  • Verify Sender: Verify the authenticity of the sender before downloading attachments or clicking on links, especially if they seem unexpected or dubious.

5. Enable Firewall Protection

  • Firewall Settings: Activate and configure firewalls on network routers and devices to block unauthorised access and prevent malware intrusion.

6. User Awareness and Training

  • Educate Users: Conduct cybersecurity awareness training for employees or users to recognise phishing attempts, suspicious websites, and potential ransomware threats.
  • Train for Caution: Teach best practices, including not downloading files from untrusted sources and being cautious while browsing online.

7. Restrict User Privileges

  • Least Privilege Principle: Implement the principle of least privilege, ensuring users have access only to the resources necessary for their roles or tasks.

8. Network Segmentation

  • Segment Networks: Divide networks into smaller segments or zones to contain and isolate potential malware infections, limiting the spread of ransomware across the network.

By implementing these preventive measures and best practices, organisations and individuals can significantly reduce the risk of falling victim to Locky Ransomware and similar cyber threats.

Reporting the Incident and Seeking Professional Help

Here are steps regarding reporting a ransomware incident and seeking professional help:

1. Report the Incident

  • Law Enforcement: Report the ransomware incident to law enforcement agencies or cybercrime units. They might provide guidance and resources to address the attack.
  • Government Cybersecurity Agencies: Inform relevant government cybersecurity agencies or Computer Emergency Response Teams (CERTs) about the incident.

2. Document the Incident

  • Record Details: Document and retain records of the ransom note, any communication with attackers, and details of the attack.
  • Capture Evidence: If possible, take screenshots or photographs of any ransom messages, encryption processes, or unusual system behaviour as evidence.

3. Contact Cybersecurity Professionals

  • Engage IT Security Experts: Seek assistance from professional cybersecurity experts or IT consultants specialising in ransomware incidents. They can provide guidance and support in the incident response process.
  • Ransomware Remediation Services: Consider hiring specialised ransomware remediation services offered by cybersecurity firms, as they possess expertise in dealing with such attacks.

4. Don’t Pay the Ransom

  • Avoid Paying Ransom: While it might seem tempting to pay the ransom to regain access to encrypted data, experts generally advise against it. Paying the ransom doesn’t guarantee data recovery, and it encourages cybercriminal activities.

5. Preserve Evidence

  • Preserve System Data: Avoid making significant changes to the affected systems. Preserve the system’s state to retain evidence for forensic analysis by cybersecurity professionals.

6. Cooperate with Authorities

  • Cooperate in Investigations: If an investigation is initiated, provide cooperation and necessary information to law enforcement agencies or cybersecurity authorities to assist in tracking down attackers and preventing future incidents.

Promptly reporting ransomware incidents and seeking professional assistance can aid in minimising damage, recovering data, and strengthening defences against future cyber threats.


Combatting Locky ransomware demands a proactive and multifaceted approach. Being vigilant against suspicious emails, regularly updating security software, and maintaining secure backups are crucial practices in thwarting such threats. If infected, swift action to isolate the affected system, leveraging reputable antivirus tools, and seeking assistance from cybersecurity professionals can aid in successful remediation. Remember, prevention is key. By staying informed, implementing robust security measures, and fostering a cyber-resilient environment, individuals and organisations can better safeguard against the threat of Locky ransomware and similar malicious attacks.