Windows Firewall is the integrated firewall software in the Windows operating system. The software acts as a barrier between suspicious incoming and outgoing network connections. However, the Windows Firewall customisations continue beyond this point. The software offers users further options to adapt their devices and networks to the best security measures. This article puts the Windows Firewall Public vs Private network settings head-to-head to explain what each profile means, what it’s used for, the difference between them and when to choose one or the other.

What is a Firewall, and What Does It Do?

A firewall is a network barrier that works as a monitor and controller of incoming and outgoing network traffic in accordance with its predetermined security rules. Its primary function is to establish a wall between a device’s trusted internal network and the untrusted external networks, or the Internet, to prevent unauthorised access and protect against various cyber threats.

Is a Firewall Important?

Yes, a firewall is essential in network security for several reasons:

Protection Against Unauthorised Access

A firewall is a barrier between trusted and untrusted networks. It helps prevent unauthorised access to your network and computing resources, which is crucial in protecting sensitive data.

Monitoring Traffic

Firewalls have built-in security rules to monitor incoming and outgoing network traffic. This monitoring allows them to identify and block potentially harmful traffic, such as cyberattacks or unauthorised data transfers.

Blocking Malicious Traffic

Firewalls effectively block various types of malicious traffic, such as viruses, worms, and other types of malware easily transmitted over the Internet.

Preventing Cyber Attacks

Firewalls can help protect against various cyberattacks, such as denial-of-service (DoS) attacks, where attackers try to overwhelm a network with traffic, rendering it inoperable.

Controlling Network Traffic

By setting customised rules, firewalls can control which traffic is allowed or blocked, offering a way to manage and control how resources on a network are used and accessed.

Enhancing Privacy

Firewalls contribute to privacy by restricting the incoming and outgoing traffic, reducing the chances of spyware and other tracking software from sending out personal information.

Segmentation of Networks

In larger organisations, firewalls can segment networks, creating subnetworks with different access rights and security levels, thereby enhancing overall security.

Compliance and Security Standards

For businesses, firewalls are often critical to meet regulatory compliance requirements pertaining to data protection and cybersecurity.

What is Windows Firewall?

Windows Firewall is an integrated component of Microsoft Defender that provides firewalling and packet filtering functions. The firewall began in Windows XP and Windows Server 2003, its capabilities and features have since evolved. It helps protect computers by preventing unauthorised users from gaining access to private networks attempting to connect to the Internet, such as intranets. It also manages how programs and applications on a computer access and communicate over the Internet.

Windows Firewall Public vs Private, Public Network Profile, Private Network Profile
Windows Firewall Public vs Private Network Profiles: Adaptable Security for Different Environments

Windows Firewall, a key component of Microsoft Windows, is designed to adapt its security measures based on the network environment a computer is connected to. It distinguishes between ‘Public’ and ‘Private’ network profiles, each tailored to specific networking scenarios, with the primary aim of balancing security needs against functionality.

Windows Firewall Public vs Private Network Settings: Why Are There Different Network Settings?

Different network environments present varying levels of risk. For example, a home network (Private) is generally considered more secure than a coffee shop’s Wi-Fi (Public). Windows Firewall recognises these varying risk levels and allows users to set different security parameters for each type of network.

Public Network Profile: Enhanced Security for Vulnerable Environments

When connected to a public network, Windows Firewall heightens its security protocols. Public networks are accessible to a large and often unknown number of users, increasing the risk of malicious activities, such as hacking or data interception. Therefore, the firewall will tighten rules for incoming and outgoing traffic before disabling network discovery features, making your computer less visible to others on the same network. It will also restrict file and printer-sharing options to prevent unauthorised access.

Private Network Profile: Balanced Security for Trusted Networks

Users typically require more connectivity and sharing capabilities in a private network setting, such as a home or office network. Trusting that the network is secure and other connected devices are safe, Windows Firewall will allow greater leniency for incoming and outgoing connections. It enables network discovery, making finding and connecting to other devices and shared resources like printers and files more accessible. Furthermore, the software permits file and printer sharing, facilitating smoother workflow and collaboration within the trusted network.

Dynamic Response to Network Changes

Windows Firewall can recognise when a device switches between different networks, prompting the user to categorise the new network as public or private. This dynamic response ensures that the firewall settings always align with the current network’s security requirements.

User Control and Customisation

Users have the flexibility to customise the settings for each profile. For instance, in a private network, one might choose to enforce stricter rules for specific applications or adjust the level of visibility and sharing based on their specific needs.

What is the Difference Between Public and Private Network Profiles?

The distinction between public and private network profiles in Windows Firewall represents a fundamental aspect of network security in Windows operating systems. It reflects an understanding that different network environments require different security approaches. By tailoring the firewall settings to the trustworthiness and exposure level of the connected network, Windows Firewall ensures a balance between security and functionality, adapting to users’ varying needs in different networking scenarios.

Trust and Exposure Levels

You can only trust a public network under any circumstances if you’re at work and have proper antivirus and firewall software installed. Windows Firewall instantly chooses the network security profile, whether the Private Network Profile or the Public Network Profile, when you connect to any network and decide whether the network is public or private.

Private Network Profile

This profile is typically selected for networks you trust, like your home or office network. In these environments, the other devices connected to the network are usually known and controlled, implying a lower risk of malicious attacks. Therefore, the firewall settings under this profile are more relaxed, allowing for more excellent connectivity and sharing.

Public Network Profile

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Public Network Profile

Contrarily, the Public Network Profile is designed for networks in public spaces — airports, coffee shops, hotels, or other public hotspots. These networks are often unsecured and have many unknown users, significantly increasing the risk of cyber threats. As a result, Windows Firewall enforces stricter rules to minimise the computer’s exposure to potential security threats.

Network Discovery and Sharing

Each firewall profile offers different options when connecting to a private network and a public one in the availability of your device to other devices and the option to share files and printer sharing.

Private Network Profile

A Private Network Profile enables the discovery of other devices and shared resources on the network, making it easier to connect to printers, files, or other PCs. It also allows sharing of files and printers within the network, facilitating collaboration and resource utilisation among trusted users.

Public Network Profile

It’s a given when you’re connected to a public network; the Public Network profile typically turns off the Network Discovery option to prevent your computer from being visible to others on the same network. This obscurity is crucial in protecting your system from unwarranted attention and potential attacks. Furthermore, the software will generally turn off File and Printer Sharing to avert unauthorised access to your files and resources, ensuring your data remains secure even in a public setting.

Connection Rules and Permissions

Connection rules and permission refer to the scope of connections the firewall allows when choosing either network profile. This choice determines the permissions you can give applications on your device.

Private Network Profile

Windows Firewall Public vs Private, Public Network Profile, Private Network Profile
Private Network Profile

The Private Network Profile gives users more lenient incoming and outgoing network traffic rules. Since the private network is trusted, applications and services on your computer can communicate more freely within the network.

Public Network Profile

When you choose the Public Network profile, the firewall automatically implements stricter rules for inbound and outbound communications. These rules might result in the software blocking many applications from communicating over the network by default unless explicitly allowed by the user.

User Interface and Notifications

When connecting to a new network, Windows Firewall prompts the user to categorise the network as either public or private. This classification determines the set of firewall rules that will be applied. The user can also manually change the network profile through the Windows Firewall or network settings if the network environment changes or if the initial selection was incorrect. The user interface for both the Private Network Profile and the Public Network Profile is the same. You can access them from your Control Panel and open the Network and Sharing Center, which will display both options.

The Guidelines for Choosing the Right Network Profile in Windows Firewall

Choosing the correct network profile in Windows Firewall ensures optimal security and functionality. In the Public Network Profile, the focus should be on maximum protection due to the higher risks, while in the Private Network Profile, a balance of security and ease of use is vital. Understanding these settings and making an informed choice based on the network environment can significantly enhance your computer’s security and usability in different networking scenarios.

Public Network Profile: When to Choose and Key Features

The Public Network Profile should be selected when connecting to any network in a public place, such as coffee shops, libraries, airports, hotels, or other areas where the network is open to many users. These settings are crucial when you are on a network you do not manage or control.

Minimised Visibility

This setting ensures that your computer is invisible to others on the same network. This invisibility is crucial in public settings where malicious users could be present. Incoming connections to your computer are only allowed if they are part of an existing outbound connection. This option dramatically reduces the risk of unauthorised access to your system.

Protection Against Hacking and Snooping

The stringent measures in the public profile protect your computer from potential hackers and snoopers lurking on public networks.

Reduced Risk of Malware and Cyber Attacks

The strict firewall settings help safeguard your system against various forms of malware and cyberattacks that are more prevalent in public networks.

Private Network Profile: When to Choose and Key Features

The private network profile is ideal for networks in more controlled environments like your home or workplace, where you have confidence in the security and the other devices connected to the network.

Network Discovery and Sharing

This setting enables the discovery of other devices and resources on the network, such as printers, files, and other PCs, facilitating easy sharing and communication.

More Open Connectivity

The private profile allows for a more open network environment, supporting easy communication and data exchange within the network.

Balanced Protection

While offering more connectivity features, the private network profile still provides significant security, suitable for a trusted network environment.


Users can customise specific settings, like adjusting firewall rules for individual applications, to tailor the balance between security and functionality.

The public and private network profiles in Windows Firewall are integral to its functionality, providing a flexible yet secure framework for network-based activities. This adaptability ensures that users are protected in high-risk public networks while enjoying seamless connectivity and sharing capabilities in more secure, private environments. The customisation options further enhance this adaptability, allowing users to tailor the firewall to their specific usage patterns and security requirements.